Prevalence of Cardiac Abnormalities in Post Covid-19 Adult Survivors Seen At Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret, Kenya

Authors

  • Mburu NH Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, Kenya
  • Barasa FA Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Eldoret, Kenya
  • Sugut KW Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Eldoret, Kenya
  • Alenezi F Duke University, Hubert Yeargan Center

Keywords:

Covid-19, Cardiac disease, Cardiovascular risk factors

Abstract

Background: Cardiovascular complications significantly contributed to the burden of Covid-19 morbidity and mortality during the 3-year pandemic that started in late 2019. Emerging evidence at the time showed that infection led to diverse cardiovascular complications associated with severe disease and increased morbidity and mortality. Covid-19 infection also resulted in the deterioration of pre-existing Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Data from High-Income Countries (HIC) demonstrated that myocarditis, pulmonary thrombo-embolism with attendant right heart dysfunction, and acute coronary events were largely responsible for the complications but the long-term CV sequel remains unknown in populations residing in sub-Saharan Africa.

Objective: To describe the acquired cardiac, non-valvular, and rhythm abnormalities amongst patients and staff at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH) as well as students of Moi University School of Medicine (MUSOM) who had recovered from Covid-19 infection.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study at MTRH with participants drawn from the in-patient wards, outpatient clinics, and staff and students of MTRH and MUSOM respectively. Participants aged 18 years and above who had previously been diagnosed with Covid-19 were consecutively recruited into the study. We excluded those with known cardiac disease prior to Covid-19 infection and those with severe chest deformities in whom imaging was technically difficult. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. A standard 2-dimensional, Doppler (color and spectral) echocardiogram and 12 lead electrocardiogram were done. Blood samples were drawn for evaluation of LDL, glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c) and cardiac troponin.

Results: One hundred and seven participants were consecutively recruited between July 2022 and January 2023. Females comprised 53% of the population. Staff and students made up 45% of the study population. One hundred and four (97.2%) participants had normal Left Ventricular (LV) systolic function. There were no Regional Wall Motion Abnormalities (RWMA) reported. ECG changes which included T-wave inversions and Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB) were reported in 3(2.8%) participants. Elevated (low density lipoprotein) LDL and overweight/obesity were the most prominent cardiovascular risk factors reported in 27% and 70% respectively.

Conclusion: Patients who recovered from Covid-19 infection at MTRH had a very low prevalence of cardiac disease but a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors.

 

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Published

2024-05-10